Wacky Physics: Are Entangled Particles Connected by Wormholes?

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A simulation of entangled particles (Credit: John Jost and Jason Amini - via Livescience)

A simulation of entangled particles (Credit: John Jost and Jason Amini – via Livescience)

Quantum entanglement (also known as “spooky action at a distance”) is one of the most bizarre things we see happening with particle interactions on a microscale. Instead of acting as one solitary particle, certain pairs act as one – always knowing what the other is doing (and changing based on the characteristics of its partner) – despite being located vast distances apart. Obviously, this is problematic. Relativity says that nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. Yet, that’s exactly what entangled particles are doing – passing along information at speeds far exceeding light-speed travel – the universal speed limit. We shouldn’t rush to make adjustments to general relativity though, as one hypothesis has been put forth that combines quantum entanglement with a darling (yet highly theoretical) concept – Einstein-Rosen bridges (commonly known as wormholes).

According to a paper, published by Juan Maldacena and Leonard Susskind: entangled particles may be connected to one another by infinitesimally small wormholes – tunnel-like portals that connect two distant regions of space. This is how they are able to exchange signals almost instantaneously – even when they are located on opposite ends of the universe. The whole thing centers on a concept called an eternal black hole – another highly theoretical concept that postulates an entirely different universe can be found on the “other side” of a black hole (to get to it, one must delve into the black hole’s event horizon – the point of no return – before traveling into the singularity. Assuming you survive the spaghettification process – you would hypothetically pop back out into a different universe than the one you originated from). In layman terms, this indicates black holes are actually bridges that connect separate universes. (Or to put it another way, one single black hole exists in two universes)

Credit: Getty Images

Credit: Getty Images

Assuming you are still following me: in this scenario – with entangled black holes – any change to one of them would automatically effect the other as well. Hence the correlation between the two phenomena. As stated: these ideas, which are not new, are highly theoretical (perhaps even a little bit speculative). They will remain as such until we find definitive evidence of the existence of the so-called wormholes, but they are a mathematical prediction of general relativity. Therefore, one should expect this evidence to manifest eventually. In any case – the entanglement/wormhole hypothesis offers an explanation for noted instances of entangled particles becoming spontaneously disentangled – the wormholes connecting them collapse.

It also provides insight into several other perplexing concepts, dealing with a disconnect between general relativity and quantum mechanics. One deals with black holes and virtual particles.

Click to see a larger image (Source)

Click to see a larger image (Source)

Typically, they cancel one another out (and annihilate one another), but on some occasions, a black hole will consume one member of a pair of virtual particles – causing the other to physically manifest – before it drifts off into the abyss of space. We call this hawking radiation. In order for information about the objects the black hole consumed to remain intact – we believe that these particles must all be entangled with one another – meaning that the state of each individual particles depend of the state of similarly entangled particles of hawking radiation.

This presents us with a sticky paradox, called the black hole firewall paradox. It clearly indicates that each particle is entangled with not one, but multiple other particles at the same time – something the laws of physics frown upon. So, to avoid this – physicists developed a concept that says that after a particle crosses the event horizon – into the singularity – the quantum bond breaks. Subsequently producing a huge burst of energy that acts like a wall of fire.

Credit: Newscientist

Credit: Newscientist

This is where the wormhole/entanglement idea comes in to play. According to Susskind and Maldacena (who built on a paper published a few years prior to theirs) the wormholes connecting the particles from the interior and exterior of the event horizon act as a buffer to smooth out the entanglement issues – avoiding the need for a firewall. Going a bit further with that, we can say that even when a virtual particle “pops” into existence – before going on its merry way – it is still intimately connected not only to the interior of the black hole it came from, but it also has a palatable connection to its fellow brethren. They quite literally become interconnected by a slew of tiny, spaghetti-like strings. They may even remain as such after leaking hawking radiation causes the black hole to dry up, before evaporating – after the bulk of its mass is lost to space.

Of course – these quantum constructs are much to small for humans to traverse. That, paired with questions about their overall stability – mean that there is no need to get excited about the possibility of teleportation. Or anything else, for that matter. However, this could have a profound effect on how we view the overall structure of spacetime. One physicist – working separate from Susskind and Maldacena – even suggested that spacetime is a manifestation of quantum entanglement. All interesting ideas, indeed.

202 thoughts on “Wacky Physics: Are Entangled Particles Connected by Wormholes?

  1. Brent Scott

    I could see this theory being used in a science fiction novel/story/movie. Say humans have found a way to travel vast distances at faster than light travel(whether that be a warp drive or tachyonic mimicking field[just made that up right now] or something else) and humanity is now spread out throughout deep space; how would we communicate at such long distances without the delay caused by the damn radio signal only traveling at the speed of light? A simple conversation could take a lifetime! The answer: a quantum entangled radio!!!

    Don’t steal my idea ;)

  2. Lucy Mae

    faster than the speed of light? Better check those fibre optic cable connections, hee hee. I was so in hopes that the neutrino experiment that rocked the scientific community was legit…. but alas, Prof Dr Antonio Ereditato ended up resigning

    • Vincent Petitto

      Good one Lucy, even quazars don’ go th speed of light and they are ejected from black holes. Also, how could a black hoel which is a condensed sun with more mass than a thousand of our suns possiby be a hole? The ony thing the man did that was correct is say that matter can be turned into enery and visa versa.

    • Roy Herold

      Question for you . . . two fibre optic cables parallel to each other, with information flowing in opposite directions. What is the speed of the streams of information relative to each other?

  3. Mark Nezic

    No matter how physicists twist and turn it, information *can* be passed from one point to another faster than light. Which means that light speed is no longer the universal speed limit it was thought to be. If there are exceptions, then it isn’t universal.

  4. Ricardo Marlow

    Entangled particles first must be entangled so technically the info is not literally exchanged. It’s like playing clue. The secret is already known by the other particle that’s all… It’s either the candle stick or the gun depending on probability

  5. Jerri Lynn Silver

    I actually I came up with this theory on my own! I think that the black hole connects two universes that are the exact opposite of each other like a photo where there is a positive and a negative image. So one side of the black hole has the “positive” piece of “film” and the other the negative piece. If our cosmic soace is dark with bright start and galaxies, the other universe must have light cosmic space with dark celestial objects. To carry this one step further, here I am my positive self and on the other side of the hole, my negative self exists. Does this sound really crazy?

    • Gary Baugh

      Couldn’t an specific response initiated from a specific stimulus be considered a communication that could be interpreted like a yes/no command or the basis for an on/on communication somewhat akin to binary?

  6. Peat Knot Picasso

    2013-09-15 Bored with Wormholes?

    1. D=VT or velocity unit by time unit.
    2. V=D/T or distance per unit of time unit.
    3. Therefore: T=D/V or distance unit per velocity unit.

    Basic Kinematics really?

    Note for D to be VT it can also be via transposition of elements to prove no more than D=D in its circularity.

    4. D=D/TxD/V from 2. And 3.
    5. D=D^2/VT but VT=D from 1.
    6. D=D^2/D
    7. D=D

    We already know this what’s the point?

    That gravity acts one dimensionally is not a problem. It sucks all toward its monopole. Even when one is in orbit the centripetal force resultant from satellites change of vector status cancels out gravitas effect by counterbalance. Not too difficult?

    Too much and voyager 1 and 2 can escape the gravity of the Sun and Solar System. Too little and one enacts the return to Earth policy. Hope not on your or my head though.

    How then to explain O interconnections of N possible states? O is the table produced by N elements by simple multiplication of 1x2x3…xN.

    If only 2 elements to a state then 2 and only 2 string states possible. We call it digital. Multiple Switches in parallel period double to n in small letters as possible words or system address state switches. In 3 it is 6 possible strings states per parallel column and in 4 it is 24 possible string states. 120 for 5, etc. till it becomes unmanageable.
    Upping the dimensions or switch states tends toward that end that is all.

    The question asked by the Einstein Rosen Bridge defies the speed limit of light speed in a vacuum which when treated with the special case of unitarity or parity as a constant of value 1 allows for E=M and M=E and Energy is Mass and Mass is Energy. So how does the input transfer to the output over all space time volumes synchronistically? The claim that all things are connected may well prove to be true via the preceding ontological argument. Since so then I can know what you are thinking. How come then I do not know? I can assume that what was said is clear enough for a fool to comprehend but as for the professional academics I predict a vicious battle that puts all in between the debate at loggerheads with each other.

    But then I have not told you yet about M=(N/2+1/2)N yet have I and none of them, let alone, I, eye or aye, sir, know why the 1/2 bag full sir must be added before the multiplication. They can never disprove it for all the set of real positive whole integers. For when the largest number is N then the additive produces M and multiplicative sequences produces O. Such that
    N/O x O/N = 1 is therefore not as trivial as first assumed. The number of numbers 1 and above are equal to the numbers 0 to 1.

    Boring? Wormholes do that to you don’t they?


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  8. John W. Rickey

    We are really truly just in the baginning stages of understanding how our Universe works. I would agree that all pairs communicate between each other. If you can picture an ocean of waveforms that operate backwards and forwards within time domains as a conduit operating way above our light speed and frequencies, you could say listen to a subspace harmonic at these frequencies of a supernova explosion going off that might take 100,000 light years for the visual information to arrive. if CMB is parallel lines that never connect indicating large scale rotation most likely we are already seeing the conduit picture in the hot cold areas of the close dipoles as a section of our huge torus. With conduits in place, we really could communicate virtually with any position in our particular subspace both in forward and reverse time. Now, first of all forward time is here now in the matter portion of our paired motion, reverse time is advancing ahead of us around to the antimatter paired motion. So, again we are just a PROTON in a hyperdimensional complex that is also made of pairs of huge hyperdimensional rigid spacial relationships that could be the next scale up from our where a trillion years in our time zone would be a second in theres. This universe is complex, eternal, and we are climbing a very steep grade straight up in our learning curve.

  9. Nicholas Ranger

    I tend to disbelieve the tiny wormhole theory. Even if there are tiny wormholes, what is the factor connecting the two particles? I think the answer lies outside of our current understand of the universe. We, as humans, always place things in the context of what is currently known to us, we once believed the world was made up of the “four elements” that were observable, we once believed the world was flat, and we believed in the sound barrier, barely 60 years ago. Relativity is a “theory” but it is a proven one. My first thought, is it the same particle existing at two locations at the same time?

  10. Jake Larkin

    How would the bridges be sustained though? In compliance with GR, in order for wormholes to be created there must be significant enough mass to cause such a curvature in space-time. This isn’t as much of a problem for black holes given that they have very large masses, but how would this work for single pairs of low-mass particles? Particularly worrying is the fact that entanglement works for photons, which are assumed to have no mass. Where do the bridges come from?

  11. doggydog

    “Yet, that’s exactly what entangled particles are doing – passing along information at speeds far exceeding light-speed travel ”


    • Jaime Trosper

      Do you want to elaborate on that? First, It’s a personal pet peeve of mine when people swoop in, make a definitive statement and refuse to back up their position with an actual argument (a scientific one is preferable, but any will do).

      Second, entangled particles do communicate information with one another about their quantum states at speeds that far exceed lightspeed travel. It’s not traditional information, but its information none-the-less.

  12. Ssider

    Paired particles could also be 3d manifestations of things that exist in more than three dimensions. In that way the the entangled particles are really just one object that looks like more than one given our 3d+t perspective. They act in sync across both time and space because they are really just one thing.

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  16. Just curious

    Futuristic communication devices can use this concept to enable us to communicate with each other instantly even if we are separated by light years.

  17. Jeff

    Jaime, nice article. Dabbling in all things weird and morbid would likely lead a curious person to wonder about black holes. Do you think that the quantum bonds actually break between particles at the event horizon? I’have imagined the whole paradox as a if a big blender were sucking in information, where even information that is at once spurted out by the cutting blades of gravity is yet again combined and recombined until the point where it is close to impossible to differentiate between what has been taken in. Thoughts?

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